So you can gauge the measurements of the fresh new community out-of face-to-deal with family, the items in the Joy Questionnaire Monitor (Helliwell and Huang, 2013) were utilized: “As much as just how many loved ones do marriagemindedpeoplemeet you have?.” So it concern is replied toward a size of just one less than 5 household members so you’re able to 5 more 50 members of the family. Practical question to assess the size of on the internet buddy channels are comparable (Helliwell and you will Huang, 2013): “Just as much as just how many members of the family do you have to the Myspace?” nevertheless the effect size is additional, anywhere between step one below 50 to eight more 1000.
All the questions on quality of dating utilized in the fresh Eu Societal Survey was in fact modified to evaluate top-notch deal with-to-deal with and online relationships. All the questions was indeed: “Just how many people do you have that have who you is explore intimate and personal things?” and you may “How many of them individuals was your own Myspace members of the family?.” The fresh response level ranged from a single (none) so you’re able to eight (ten or more).
A principle components analysis with an oblique rotation was performed on the four friendship items. Examination of the Kaiser–Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy (KMO = 0.511) and of the Bartlett’s test of sphericity (? 2 (6) = , p 2 (30) = ; p = 0.001) and Facebook friends’ observed variables (? 2 (49) = ; p = 0.003) are related to each other. Factor scores were used as indexes of friendship in the analyses.
To help you assess health, in addition to the thought of wellness items often utilized in in the world surveys (age.grams., Eriksson ainsi que al., 2001 – “How will you rates your overall health generally” which have solutions for the an excellent 5-area level, between decent so you can terrible) brand new five pieces of brand new future health dimensions of State of Fitness Questionnaire SF-thirty-six (Ware and Sherbourne, 1992) have been integrated. A good example of all the questions is actually: “We frequently get sick a tiny easier than other some body.” These products had been replied toward good 5-section measure, between step one undoubtedly not the case to help you 5 certainly correct. The 5 circumstances presented a sufficient reliability (? = 0.72) and average of four facts was computed while the indicator out of notice-advertised physical health.
Psychological state is reviewed thru four points throughout the SF-36 (Ware and you may Sherbourne, 1992). An illustration try “How often have you ever considered most scared over the past cuatro days?.” Such concerns was in fact replied with the a 5-part level, ranging from not to ever always. Since the amount of inner consistency of the items is a good (? = 0.80), the brand new indicator away from mental health was computed, averaging brand new answers to those four inquiries.
The assessment of subjective well-being was performed with two items (r = 0.722; p 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (30) = ; p 2 (35) = ; p 1 (Figure 1). More specifically, we tested whether bridging and bonding social capital mediated the relationships among face-to-face friendship and health, as the direct pathway between Facebook friends and health proved not to be significant, ? = 0.09, p = 0.192. Age, gender, education, subjective SES, self-esteem, and living alone effects were controlled. Missing data were handled with listwise deletion.
The direct pathway between face-to-face friendship and health was totally mediated by bonding and bridging social capital. For the mediation of bonding, we found significant paths between friendship and bonding, ? = 0.18, t = 5.59, p 2 (6) = , p 2 (64) = ; p 2 (64) = ; p 2 /DF 0.95; CFI > 0.95; RMSEA 2 (5) = ; p 2 (25) = ; p = 0.039] and close friends [? 2 (30) = ; p = 0.028] than the older participants. The other side of the coin reveals that 9.8% of the respondents claimed to have less than five friends and around 8% affirmed having no close friends at all. Regarding older participants, aged 55 years or above, 8.3% referred to not having anyone to speak to about intimate issues and 9.9% indicated having only one intimate friend.